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The James Webb House Telescope friends into the early universe and sees galaxies like our Milky Means

The James Webb House Telescope friends into the early universe and sees galaxies like our Milky Means

The James Webb House Telescope friends into the early universe and sees galaxies like our Milky Means

This simulation reveals how stellar bars kind (left) and the influx of fuel pushed by the bars (proper). Bars play an essential function within the evolution of galaxies by funneling fuel into the central areas of the galaxy, the place it quickly turns into new stars, usually 10 to 100 instances quicker than the remainder of the galaxy. Bars additionally not directly assist supermassive black holes develop on the facilities of galaxies by channeling the fuel a part of the best way. By Françoise Combe, Paris Observatory

New pictures from[{” attribute=””>NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) reveal for the first time galaxies with stellar bars — elongated features of stars stretching from the centers of galaxies into their outer disks — at a time when the universe was a mere 25% of its present age. The finding of so-called barred galaxies, similar to our Milky Way, this early in the universe will require astrophysicists to refine their theories of galaxy evolution.

Prior to JWST, images from the Hubble Space Telescope had never detected bars at such young epochs. In a Hubble image, one galaxy, EGS-23205, is little more than a disk-shaped smudge, but in the corresponding JWST image taken this past summer, it’s a beautiful spiral galaxy with a clear stellar bar.

“I took one look at these data, and I said, ‘We are dropping everything else!’” said Shardha Jogee, professor of astronomy at The University of Texas at Austin. “The bars hardly visible in Hubble data just popped out in the JWST image, showing the tremendous power of JWST to see the underlying structure in galaxies,” she said, describing data from the Cosmic Evolution Early Release Science Survey (CEERS), led by UT Austin professor, Steven Finkelstein.

Comparison of Hubble Versus Webb Galaxies

The power of JWST to map galaxies at high resolution and at longer infrared wavelengths than Hubble allows it look through dust and unveil the underlying structure and mass of distant galaxies. This can be seen in these two images of the galaxy EGS23205, seen as it was about 11 billion years ago. In the HST image (left, taken in the near-infrared filter), the galaxy is little more than a disk-shaped smudge obscured by dust and impacted by the glare of young stars, but in the corresponding JWST mid-infrared image (taken this past summer), it’s a beautiful spiral galaxy with a clear stellar bar. Credit: NASA/CEERS/University of Texas at Austin

The team identified another barred galaxy, EGS-24268, also from about 11 billion years ago, which makes two barred galaxies existing farther back in time than any previously discovered.

In an article accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, they highlight these two galaxies and show examples of four other barred galaxies from more than 8 billion years ago.

“For this study, we are looking at a new regime where no one had used this kind of data or done this kind of quantitative analysis before,” said Yuchen “Kay” Guo, a graduate student who led the analysis, “so everything is new. It’s like going into a forest that nobody has ever gone into.”

Bars play an important role in galaxy evolution by funneling gas into the central regions, boosting star formation.

“Bars solve the supply chain problem in galaxies,” Jogee said. “Just like we need to bring raw material from the harbor to inland factories that make new products, a bar powerfully transports gas into the central region where the gas is rapidly converted into new stars at a rate typically 10 to 100 times faster than in the rest of the galaxy.”

Bars also help to grow supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies by channeling the gas part of the way.


This simulation reveals how stellar bars kind (left) and the influx of fuel pushed by the bars (proper). Bars play an essential function within the evolution of galaxies by funneling fuel into the central areas of the galaxy, the place it quickly turns into new stars, usually 10 to 100 instances quicker than the remainder of the galaxy. Bars additionally not directly assist supermassive black holes develop on the facilities of galaxies by channeling the fuel a part of the best way. By Françoise Combe, Paris Observatory

The opening of the lattice at such early epochs modified the eventualities of galaxy growth in a number of methods.

“This discovery of early columns signifies that fashions of galaxy evolution now have a brand new path by the columns to speed up the manufacturing of recent stars at early epochs,” Joji stated.

And the very existence of those early columns challenges theoretical fashions, as they want the proper physics of the galaxy to foretell the proper column abundance. The staff will take a look at totally different fashions of their subsequent works.

Six Early Forbidden Galaxies by Webb

A montage of JWST pictures exhibiting six examples of barred galaxies, two of which signify the longest viewing instances quantified and characterised to this point. Labels within the upper-left nook of every determine point out the survey time of every galaxy within the vary 8.4 to 11 billion years in the past (Gyr), when the Universe was solely 40% to twenty% of its current age. Credit score: NASA/CEERS/College of Texas at Austin

JWST can reveal constructions in distant galaxies higher than Hubble for 2 causes: First, its bigger mirror offers it a larger means to assemble gentle, permitting it to see additional and with greater decision. Second, it may well see by mud higher as a result of it observes at longer infrared wavelengths than Hubble.

Undergraduate college students Eden Sensible and Qilei Chen performed a key function within the examine, visually scanning lots of of galaxies for those who appeared to have bars, which helped slim the record down to a couple dozen for different researchers to investigate with extra intensive mathematical evaluation. method.

Reference: Yuchen Guo, Shardha Joji, Steven L. Finkelstein, Zilei Chen, Eden Sensible, Michaela B. Bagley, Guillermo Barro, “First have a look at Z > 1 bars within the rest-frame near-infrared from JWST Early CEERS Imaging,” 2010; Stijn Wuits, Dale D. Koczewski, Jayhan S. Kartaltepe, Elizabeth J. McGrath, Henry S. Ferguson, Bahram Mobasher, Maura Javaliska, Ray A. Lucas, George A. Zavala, Jennifer M. Lotz, Norman A. Grogin, Marc Gardens-Firm, Jesus Vega-Ferrero, Nimish P. Hathi, Pablo Arrabal Haro, Mark Dickinson, Anton M. Koekemoer, Casey Papovich, Nor Pirzkal, LY Aaron Yung, Bren E. Backhaus, Eric F. Bell, Antanella Calabrò , Nico J. Cleary, Rosemary T. Coogan, Maki Cooper, Luca Constantin, Darren Croton, Kelsey Davis, Alexander de la Vega, Avishai Deckel, Maximilian Franco, Jonathan P. Gardner, Ben W. Holverdo, Taylor A. Hutchison, Viraj Pandya, Pablo G .Perez-Gonzalez, Swara Ravindranath, Caitlin Rose, Jonathan R. Trump, and Weichen Wang, are accepted, Astrophysical Journal Letters.
arXiv:2210.08658

Different co-authors from UT Austin are Steven Finkelstein, Michaela Bagley and Maximilien Franco. Dozens of co-authors from different establishments come from the US, UK, Japan, Spain, France, Italy, Australia and Israel.

Funding for this analysis was supplied partially by the Roland Okay. Bloomberg Basis for Astronomy, the Heising-Simons Basis, and NASA. This work drew on assets on the Texas Superior Computing Heart, together with Frontera, essentially the most highly effective supercomputer at a US college.





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