Science

Quanta Journal

Quanta Journal

However then in 2019, van Dokkum’s group downgraded Dragonfly 44’s rotation pace utilizing improved information. MOND was vindicated. “Dragonfly 44 is an instance of how these information evolve to agree with MOND,” mentioned McGaugh.

Nonetheless, for almost all of astronomers, who imagine in darkish matter, the slower rotation pace simply implied that Dragonfly 44’s halo is smaller than they thought. In 2020, an unbiased group additional downsized the halo by counting dramatically fewer globular clusters, however van Dokkum disputes this outcome. Although the halo’s dimension stays unsure, it might be much less huge than initially supposed, suggesting that Dragonfly 44 isn’t a failed Milky Manner in any case.

Massive Previous Galaxy

A newly found oddity has compounded the thriller.

In a paper printed in August, van Dokkum’s group discovered Dragonfly 44 to be extraordinarily historical, having fashioned between 10 billion and 13 billion years in the past.

However such an outdated galaxy shouldn’t be as massive as Dragonfly 44 is. Early-universe objects are usually extra compact as a result of they fashioned earlier than the universe’s speedy growth.

Furthermore, such an outdated, threadbare galaxy ought to have been utterly torn aside by now. That Dragonfly 44 has held collectively implies that it has a hefty darkish matter halo in any case — probably restoring the “failed Milky Manner” speculation. “That’s a extremely enjoyable rationalization, in order that’s why I prefer it, however I don’t know if it’s proper,” mentioned van Dokkum.

One other rationalization, the “excessive spin” speculation, posits that two small galaxies merged whereas rotating in the identical path, such that the ensuing galaxy, Dragonfly 44, acquired the angular momentum of each. This brought on it to rotate extra rapidly, puffing it out and blowing out its star-making materials.

Dazzlingly Numerous UDGs

Amid the scrutiny of Dragonfly 44, astronomers have additionally cataloged an enormous and numerous assortment of different ultra-diffuse galaxies. The findings are forcing them to conclude that galaxies kind in additional methods than they knew.

Some newfound UDGs appear to lack darkish matter totally. Van Dokkum’s group recognized one such galaxy in 2018, then noticed a path of others close by. This Might, the crew conjectured in Nature that the path fashioned in a long-ago collision of two galaxies. The collision slowed down the circulate of the galaxies’ gasoline, however their darkish matter stored going as if nothing had occurred. The gasoline then compressed into clumps of stars, ultimately forming a string of darkish matter-free galaxies.

In the meantime, Bennet found two UDGs in 2018 that time to a special formation principle. In every case, tidal forces from a heavy close by galaxy appear to have ripped via the UDG, puffing it out and stealing its gasoline. (This may’t clarify Dragonfly 44, which sits too removed from heavy galaxies.)

Puzzlingly, a September paper reported latest star formation in a UDG, contradicting the concept that they solely harbor outdated stars.

Such a spread of UDGs that look the identical outwardly however differ internally might validate darkish matter principle over MOND. “If the celebs are transferring very quick in a single galaxy, and really slowly within the different, that’s a giant drawback for these various theories,” van Dokkum mentioned.

McGaugh agreed that if there are “real outliers” among the many UDG inhabitants, “that’s certainly an issue for MOND.” Nevertheless, he added, “that doesn’t routinely make darkish matter a greater interpretation.”

Definitive solutions would require new telescopes. The newly operational James Webb House Telescope has already noticed distant galaxies as they appeared once they had been forming within the early universe, which is able to assist check and refine the nascent concepts.

“The large takeaway is that we nonetheless don’t know what’s on the market,” van Dokkum mentioned. “There are galaxies that we haven’t found which are very massive, very shut by, and have uncommon properties, and they aren’t in our present catalogs even in any case these many years of finding out the sky.”

n","settings":{"socialLinks":[{"type":"facebook","label":"Facebook","url":"https://www.facebook.com/QuantaNews","__typename":"SocialMediaLink"},{"type":"twitter","label":"Twitter","url":"https://twitter.com/QuantaMagazine","__typename":"SocialMediaLink"},{"type":"youtube","label":"YouTube","url":"https://www.youtube.com/c/QuantaScienceChannel","__typename":"SocialMediaLink"},{"type":"instagram","label":"Instagram","url":"https://instagram.com/quantamag","__typename":"SocialMediaLink"},{"type":"rss","label":"RSS","url":"https://api.quantamagazine.org/feed/","__typename":"SocialMediaLink"}],"newsletterAction":"https://quantamagazine.us1.list-manage.com/subscribe/submit?u=0d6ddf7dc1a0b7297c8e06618&id=f0cb61321c","newsletterUrl":"http://us1.campaign-archive2.com/dwelling/?u=0d6ddf7dc1a0b7297c8e06618&id=f0cb61321c","sfNotice":"An editorially unbiased publication supported by the Simons Basis.","commentsHeader":"

n","channels":[{"title":"The Joy of Why","slug":"the-joy-of-why","description":"The mathematician and author Steven Strogatz interviews leading researchers about the great scientific and mathematical questions of our time.","featured_image":{"alt":"","caption":"","url":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1.jpg","width":2560,"height":1440,"sizes":{"thumbnail":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1-520x293.jpg","square_small":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1-160x160.jpg","square_large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1-520x520.jpg","medium":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1-1720x968.jpg","medium_large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1-768x432.jpg","large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoW_Quanta_2560x1440-1-1.jpg","__typename":"ImageSizes"},"__typename":"Image"},"square_image":{"alt":"","caption":"","url":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600.jpg","width":600,"height":600,"sizes":{"thumbnail":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600-520x520.jpg","square_small":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600-160x160.jpg","square_large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600-520x520.jpg","medium":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600.jpg","medium_large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600.jpg","large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/Jaki-King-General-Quanta_600.jpg","__typename":"ImageSizes"},"__typename":"Image"},"subscribe_itunes_link":"https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/the-joy-of-why/id1608948873","subscribe_spotify_link":"https://open.spotify.com/show/2FoxHraQSKwxV2HgUfwLMp","subscribe_android_link":"https://podcasts.google.com/feed/aHR0cHM6Ly9hcGkucXVhbnRhbWFnYXppbmUub3JnL2ZlZWQvdGhlLWpveS1vZi13aHk","subscribe_stitcher_link":"https://www.stitcher.com/show/the-joy-of-why","__typename":"Channel"},{"title":"Quanta Science Podcast","slug":"quanta-podcast","description":"Susan Valot narrates in-depth news episodes based on Quanta Magazine's articles about mathematics, physics, biology and computer science. ","featured_image":{"alt":"Micrograph of a neuron showing aggregations of tau protein.","caption":"","url":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/06/Aging_agregates_2880x1620_Lede-scaled.jpg","width":2560,"height":1440,"sizes":{"thumbnail":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/06/Aging_agregates_2880x1620_Lede-520x293.jpg","square_small":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/06/Aging_agregates_2880x1620_Lede-160x160.jpg","square_large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/06/Aging_agregates_2880x1620_Lede-520x520.jpg","medium":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/06/Aging_agregates_2880x1620_Lede-1720x968.jpg","medium_large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/06/Aging_agregates_2880x1620_Lede-768x432.jpg","large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/06/Aging_agregates_2880x1620_Lede-scaled.jpg","__typename":"ImageSizes"},"__typename":"Image"},"square_image":{"alt":"","caption":"","url":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000x3000.jpg","width":3000,"height":3000,"sizes":{"thumbnail":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000x3000-520x520.jpg","square_small":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000x3000-160x160.jpg","square_large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000x3000-520x520.jpg","medium":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000x3000-1720x1720.jpg","medium_large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000x3000-768x768.jpg","large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/logo_Quanta-Podcast-3000x3000-2880x2880.jpg","__typename":"ImageSizes"},"__typename":"Image"},"subscribe_itunes_link":"https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/quanta-science-podcast/id1021340531?mt=2&ls=1","subscribe_spotify_link":"https://open.spotify.com/show/7oKXOpbHzbICFUcJNbZ5wF?si=jdnj9sTHSD2bj4hDMFLKEA","subscribe_android_link":"https://podcasts.google.com/feed/aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cucXVhbnRhbWFnYXppbmUub3JnL2ZlZWQvcG9kY2FzdC8","subscribe_stitcher_link":"https://www.stitcher.com/podcast/quanta-magazine-2/quanta-magazine-podcast","__typename":"Channel"},{"title":"The Joy of x","slug":"the-joy-of-x","description":"The acclaimed mathematician and author Steven Strogatz interviews some of the world’s leading scientists about their lives and work.","featured_image":{"alt":"","caption":"","url":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1.jpg","width":1920,"height":1080,"sizes":{"thumbnail":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-520x293.jpg","square_small":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-160x160.jpg","square_large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-520x520.jpg","medium":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-1720x968.jpg","medium_large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1-768x432.jpg","large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JoX_Spheres_1920x1080-1.jpg","__typename":"ImageSizes"},"__typename":"Image"},"square_image":{"alt":"","caption":"","url":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600.jpg","width":600,"height":600,"sizes":{"thumbnail":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600-520x520.jpg","square_small":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600-160x160.jpg","square_large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600-520x520.jpg","medium":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600.jpg","medium_large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600.jpg","large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.net/uploads/2022/03/JofX_podcast_logo-NEW-600.jpg","__typename":"ImageSizes"},"__typename":"Image"},"subscribe_itunes_link":"https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/the-joy-of-x/id1495067186","subscribe_spotify_link":"https://open.spotify.com/show/5HcCtKPH5gnOjRiMtTdC07?si=lFzCzat9QfuPU3hWuYibxQ","subscribe_android_link":"https://podcasts.google.com/feed/aHR0cHM6Ly9hcGkucXVhbnRhbWFnYXppbmUub3JnL2ZlZWQvdGhlLWpveS1vZi14Lw","subscribe_stitcher_link":"https://www.stitcher.com/podcast/the-joy-of-x","__typename":"Channel"}],"editors":[{"name":"Bill Andrews - Senior CS Editor","__typename":"Editor"},{"name":"Ben Brubaker - Staff CS Writer","__typename":"Editor"},{"name":"Matt Carlstrom - Senior Engagement Editor","__typename":"Editor"},{"name":"Jordana Cepelewicz - Senior Math Writer","__typename":"Editor"},{"name":"Konstantin Kakaes - Senior Math Editor","__typename":"Editor"},{"name":"Thomas Lin - Editor in Chief","__typename":"Editor"},{"name":"Michael Moyer - Deputy Editor, Physics, Math, CS","__typename":"Editor"},{"name":"John Rennie - Deputy Editor, Biology, Podcasts","__typename":"Editor"},{"name":"Yasemin Saplakoglu - Staff Biology Writer","__typename":"Editor"},{"name":"Samuel Velasco - Art Director","__typename":"Editor"},{"name":"Natalie Wolchover - Senior Physics Editor","__typename":"Editor"},{"name":"Charlie Wood - Staff Physics Writer","__typename":"Editor"}],"popularSearches":[{"term":"math","label":"Mathematics","__typename":"PopularSearch"},{"term":"physics","label":"Physics","__typename":"PopularSearch"},{"term":"black holes","label":"Black Holes","__typename":"PopularSearch"},{"term":"evolution","label":"Evolution","__typename":"PopularSearch"}],"searchTopics":[{"type":"Tag","label":"Podcasts","tag":{"name":"Quanta Podcast","slug":"quanta-podcast","term_id":"552","__typename":"Term"},"category":{"name":null,"slug":null,"term_id":null,"__typename":"Term"},"__typename":"SearchTopic"},{"type":"Tag","label":"Columns","tag":{"name":"Quantized Columns","slug":"quantized","term_id":"551","__typename":"Term"},"category":{"name":null,"slug":null,"term_id":null,"__typename":"Term"},"__typename":"SearchTopic"},{"type":"Series","label":"Series","tag":{"name":null,"slug":null,"term_id":null,"__typename":"Term"},"category":{"name":null,"slug":null,"term_id":null,"__typename":"Term"},"__typename":"SearchTopic"},{"type":"Category","label":"Interviews","tag":{"name":"Q&A","slug":"qa","term_id":"567","__typename":"Term"},"category":{"name":"Q&A","slug":"qa","term_id":"176","__typename":"Term"},"__typename":"SearchTopic"},{"type":"Category","label":"Multimedia","tag":{"name":null,"slug":null,"term_id":null,"__typename":"Term"},"category":{"name":"Multimedia","slug":"multimedia","term_id":"43","__typename":"Term"},"__typename":"SearchTopic"},{"type":"Category","label":"Puzzles","tag":{"name":"puzzles","slug":"puzzles","term_id":"542","__typename":"Term"},"category":{"name":"Puzzles","slug":"puzzles","term_id":"546","__typename":"Term"},"__typename":"SearchTopic"},{"type":"Category","label":"Blog Posts","tag":{"name":null,"slug":null,"term_id":null,"__typename":"Term"},"category":{"name":"Abstractions blog","slug":"abstractions","term_id":"619","__typename":"Term"},"__typename":"SearchTopic"},{"type":"news","label":"News Articles","tag":{"name":null,"slug":null,"term_id":null,"__typename":"Term"},"category":{"name":null,"slug":null,"term_id":null,"__typename":"Term"},"__typename":"SearchTopic"},{"type":"videos","label":"Videos","tag":{"name":null,"slug":null,"term_id":null,"__typename":"Term"},"category":{"name":null,"slug":null,"term_id":null,"__typename":"Term"},"__typename":"SearchTopic"}],"searchSections":[{"name":"Mathematics","slug":"mathematics","term_id":"188","__typename":"Term"},{"name":"Physics","slug":"physics","term_id":"189","__typename":"Term"},{"name":"Biology","slug":"biology","term_id":"191","__typename":"Term"},{"name":"Computer Science","slug":"computer-science","term_id":"190","__typename":"Term"}],"searchAuthors":[{"id":"38171","name":"Adam Becker","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"28087","name":"Adam Mann","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"29794","name":"Alex Kontorovich","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"39302","name":"Alexander Hellemans","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"56","name":"Alla Katsnelson","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"47249","name":"Allison Parshall","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"29458","name":"Allison Whitten","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"73","name":"Amanda Gefter","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"39164","name":"Ana Kova","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"59","name":"Andreas von Bubnoff","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"8728","name":"Anil Ananthaswamy","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"11648","name":"Ann Finkbeiner","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"42689","name":"Annie Melchor","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"95","name":"Ariel Bleicher","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"15493","name":"Ashley Smart","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"450","name":"Ashley Yeager","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"36490","name":"Ben Brubaker","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"16315","name":"Bill Andrews","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"2752","name":"Bob Henderson","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"15492","name":"Brendan Z. Foster","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"68","name":"Brooke Borel","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"62","name":"Carl Zimmer","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"13684","name":"Caroline Lee","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"13691","name":"Caroline Lee","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"50","name":"Carrie Arnold","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"15142","name":"Chanda Prescod-Weinstein","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"8084","name":"Charlie Wood","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"742","name":"Christie Wilcox","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"11543","name":"Claudia Dreifus","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"57","name":"Courtney Humphries","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"7262","name":"Dalmeet Singh Chawla","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"70","name":"Dan Falk","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"19918","name":"Dana Najjar","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"13695","name":"Daniel Garisto","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"32676","name":"Daniel S. Freed","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"13724","name":"David H. Freedman","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"26310","name":"David S. Richeson","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"30207","name":"David Tse","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"19266","name":"Devin Powell","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"13251","name":"Diana Kwon","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"17000","name":"Elena Renken","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"17149","name":"Elizabeth Landau","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"5279","name":"Elizabeth Preston","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"58","name":"Elizabeth Svoboda","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"32612","name":"Ellen Horne","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"27534","name":"Emily Buder","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"25173","name":"Emily Levesque","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"64","name":"Emily Singer","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"47","name":"Erica Klarreich","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"14784","name":"Erika K. Carlson","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"98","name":"Esther Landhuis","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"5830","name":"Eva Silverstein","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"6793","name":"Evelyn Lamb","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"75","name":"Ferris Jabr","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"52","name":"Frank Wilczek","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"69","name":"Gabriel Popkin","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"77","name":"George Musser","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"19092","name":"Grant Sanderson","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"20557","name":"Howard Lee","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"66","name":"Ingrid Daubechies","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"46418","name":"Ingrid Wickelgren","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"85","name":"Ivan Amato","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"37141","name":"Jake Buehler","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"44758","name":"James Dinneen","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"12170","name":"Janna Levin","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"32","name":"Jeanette Kazmierczak","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"51","name":"Jennifer Ouellette","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"44787","name":"Joanna Thompson","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"72","name":"John Pavlus","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"16475","name":"John Preskill","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"91","name":"John Rennie","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"10351","name":"Jonathan Lambert","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"31716","name":"Jonathan O'Callaghan","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"1241","name":"Jordana Cepelewicz","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"8463","name":"Joshua Roebke","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"49","name":"Joshua Sokol","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"16815","name":"jye","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"67","name":"K.C. Cole","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"37462","name":"Karmela Padavic-Callaghan","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"87","name":"Kat McGowan","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"36139","name":"Katarina Zimmer","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"20556","name":"Katherine Harmon Courage","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"90","name":"Katia Moskvitch","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"39551","name":"Katie McCormick","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"27374","name":"Kelsey Houston-Edwards","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"40","name":"Kevin Hartnett","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"45758","name":"Kristina Armitage","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"38413","name":"Lakshmi Chandrasekaran","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"12570","name":"Laura Poppick","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"38699","name":"Leila Sloman","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"23451","name":"Liam Drew","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"79","name":"Liz Kruesi","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"38","name":"Lucy Reading-Ikkanda","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"47180","name":"Lyndie Chiou","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"60","name":"Maggie McKee","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"2333","name":"Mallory Locklear","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"3569","name":"Marcus Woo","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"414","name":"Mark Kim-Mulgrew","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"20495","name":"Matt Carlstrom","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"17147","name":"Matthew Hutson","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"30953","name":"Max G. Levy","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"32437","name":"Max Kozlov","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"38705","name":"mcho","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"40613","name":"Melanie Mitchell","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"7186","name":"Melinda Wenner Moyer","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"14093","name":"Michael Harris","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"34","name":"Michael Kranz","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"23","name":"Michael Moyer","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"74","name":"Michael Nielsen","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"19093","name":"Michele Bannister","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"1472","name":"Moira Chas","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"6476","name":"Monique Brouillette","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"42264","name":"Mordechai Rorvig","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"10","name":"Natalie Wolchover","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"37605","name":"Nick Thieme","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"43298","name":"Nicole Yunger Halpern","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"37428","name":"Nima Arkani-Hamed","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"19962","name":"Nola Taylor Redd","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"24","name":"Olena Shmahalo","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"1816","name":"Patrick Honner","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"46889","name":"Paul Chaikin","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"84","name":"Peter Byrne","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"55","name":"Philip Ball","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"31","name":"Pradeep Mutalik","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"24011","name":"Puja Changoiwala","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"100","name":"Quanta Magazine","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"2784","name":"R. Douglas Fields","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"26114","name":"Rachel Crowell","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"9412","name":"Raleigh McElvery","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"820","name":"Ramin Skibba","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"1666","name":"Rebecca Boyle","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"20950","name":"Richard Masland","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"48","name":"Robbert Dijkgraaf","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"80","name":"Roberta Kwok","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"15681","name":"Robin George Andrews","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"24577","name":"Rodrigo Pérez Ortega","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"78","name":"Sabine Hossenfelder","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"23845","name":"Samuel Velasco","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"83","name":"Sarah Lewin","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"35441","name":"Scott Aaronson","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"76","name":"Sean B. Carroll","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"15680","name":"Sean Carroll","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"7239","name":"Shannon Hall","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"44197","name":"Sheon Han","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"65","name":"Siobhan Roberts","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"5944","name":"Sophia Chen","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"61","name":"Steph Yin","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"63","name":"Stephanie Bucklin","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"26311","name":"Stephanie DeMarco","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"71","name":"Stephen Ornes","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"17148","name":"Steve Nadis","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"13356","name":"Steven Strogatz","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"17150","name":"Susan D'Agostino","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"39768","name":"Tamar Lichter Blanks","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"2960","name":"Tara C. Smith","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"14785","name":"Thomas Lewton","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"3","name":"Thomas Lin","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"54","name":"Tim Vernimmen","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"88","name":"Tom Siegfried","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"12964","name":"Vanessa Schipani","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"53","name":"Veronique Greenwood","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"86","name":"Virginia Hughes","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"3244","name":"Viviane Callier","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"89","name":"Wynne Parry","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"15913","name":"XiaoZhi Lim","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"42263","name":"Yasemin Saplakoglu","__typename":"AuthorList"},{"id":"45757","name":"Zack Savitsky","__typename":"AuthorList"}],"adBehavior":"in every single place","adUrl":"https://www.quantamagazine.org/podcasts/","adAlt":"Get Entangled","adImageHome":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2021/09/2021PodcastAd_Web-Default_260.jpg","adImageArticle":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2021/09/2021PodcastAd_Article_160.jpg","adImageTablet":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2021/09/2021PodcastAd_Tablet_890.jpg","adImageMobile":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2021/09/2021PodcastAd_Web-Default_260.jpg","trackingScripts":"rnrnrnrnrnrnrnrn"},"theme":{"web page":{"accent":"#ff8600","textual content":"#1a1a1a","background":"white"},"header":{"kind":"default","gradient":{"colour":"white"},"stable":{"major":"#1a1a1a","secondary":"#999999","hover":"#ff8600"},"clear":{"major":"white","secondary":"white","hover":"#ff8600"}}},"redirect":null,"fallbackImage":{"alt":"","caption":"","url":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2017/04/default.gif","width":1200,"peak":600,"sizes":{"thumbnail":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2017/04/default-520x260.gif","square_small":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2017/04/default-160x160.gif","square_large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2017/04/default-520x520.gif","medium":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2017/04/default.gif","medium_large":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2017/04/default-768x384.gif","massive":"https://d2r55xnwy6nx47.cloudfront.web/uploads/2017/04/default.gif","__typename":"ImageSizes"},"__typename":"Picture"}},"modals":{"loginModal":false,"signUpModal":false,"forgotPasswordModal":false,"resetPasswordModal":false,"lightboxModal":false,"callback":null,"props":null},"podcast":{"id":null,"enjoying":false,"length":0,"currentTime":0},"consumer":{"loggedIn":false,"savedArticleIDs":[],"userEmail":"","editor":false},"feedback":{"open":false},"cookies":{"acceptedCookie":false}},
env: {
APP_URL: 'https://www.quantamagazine.org',
NODE_ENV: 'manufacturing',
WP_URL: 'https://api.quantamagazine.org',
HAS_GOOGLE_ID: true,
HAS_FACEBOOK_ID: true,
},
}


#Quanta #Journal

Related Articles

Back to top button