Excessive-salt, low-potassium food regimen could improve threat of cognitive decline

Excessive-salt, low-potassium food regimen could improve threat of cognitive decline

Excessive-salt, low-potassium food regimen could improve threat of cognitive decline

Cognitive decline refers to a gradual decline in cognitive talents equivalent to reminiscence, consideration, and problem-solving talents. It’s a pure a part of growing old, however it can be attributable to varied ailments, equivalent to Alzheimer’s illness and different types of dementia. It can be attributable to sure life-style decisions, equivalent to poor food regimen, lack of bodily exercise and social isolation.

Dementia is a debilitating situation that impacts an individual’s potential to recollect, suppose and make choices, making it tough for them to hold out on a regular basis actions. It has grow to be one of many main causes of demise and incapacity among the many aged worldwide. In China, which has the biggest aged inhabitants and one of many quickest growing old international locations, dementia poses important financial, medical and social challenges.

As a result of dementia is irreversible and efficient therapies are restricted, it’s important to stop and detect cognitive decline at an early stage. Analysis has proven that sure life-style elements, equivalent to bodily exercise, food regimen and sleep, can have an effect on cognitive perform. Nonetheless, the consequences of dietary sodium and potassium on cognitive perform stay poorly understood.

In a potential research printed within the journal KeAi International transitions, a gaggle of researchers from China examined the consequences of dietary sodium, potassium, the ratio of sodium to potassium, and salt on cognitive perform in a gaggle of aged individuals in China. Contributors numbered 4,213 and have been at the least 50 years of age at baseline. Outcomes are primarily based on members’ cognitive checks and self-reports.

Table of salt, potassium and memory

Affiliation of imply sodium, potassium, sodium/potassium, and salt intakes and self-reported reminiscence. Mannequin 1 adjusted for age, gender, place of residence, space of ​​residence, schooling stage, employment standing, marital standing, stage of bodily exercise, and smoking and consuming habits. Mannequin 2 adjusted for vitality, carbohydrate, protein and fats consumption (moreover adjusted for potassium consumption for sodium mannequin and sodium consumption for potassium mannequin) primarily based on mannequin 1. Mannequin 3 adjusted for BMI, sleep time, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illness and cognitive check scores primarily based on mannequin 2. Abbreviations: Q1-This fall, quartile 1-quartile 4; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; and BMI, physique mass index. Orange squares point out a major affiliation ( P < 0.05). Writer: Xiaona Na

The analysis crew discovered that prime sodium consumption (> 5593.2 mg/day) and a excessive sodium-to-potassium ratio (> 3.8/day) elevated the chance of reminiscence impairment in older adults. Conversely, greater ranges of potassium consumption (>1653.3 mg/day) have been related to greater cognitive scores; imply cognitive check rating (13.44 at baseline, whole rating was 27.00) elevated by ∼1 level when 1000 mg of sodium per day was changed by equal potassium consumption.

As well as, the researchers constructed on earlier research demonstrating that the consequences of dietary sodium, the sodium-to-potassium ratio, and potassium on cognitive perform could also be mediated by cardiovascular and cerebrovascular illness (CCVD), whereas the affiliation between salt and cognitive perform exists perform could also be mediated by sleep.

Though China has tried to restrict salt and sodium in individuals’s diets for greater than a decade, public consumption stays alarmingly excessive, exceeding many different international locations and the World Well being Group’s suggestion of a most of 1,400 mg of sodium per day for individuals aged 50-79. years and 5 g of salt per day. This excessive salt consumption is normally accompanied by inadequate potassium consumption (1499.0 mg/day on this research vs. the Chinese language really useful stage of 3600 mg/day).

The research outcomes additionally assist earlier findings that the ratio of sodium to potassium within the food regimen could present a greater measure of how these components have an effect on cognitive perform than particular person sodium and potassium values.

Corresponding creator Ai Zhao provides, “Based mostly on our findings, it’s affordable to hypothesize {that a} discount in sodium consumption and an acceptable improve in potassium consumption have helpful results on cognitive perform. Contemplating our outcomes and the dietary state of affairs of Chinese language individuals, will probably be necessary for future analysis to deal with figuring out the optimum sodium to potassium ratio within the food regimen within the aged. As well as, creating methods to enhance the ratio of sodium to potassium in Chinese language diets must be a precedence.”

Reference: “Affiliation of Dietary Sodium, Potassium, Sodium/Potassium, and Salt with Goal and Subjective Cognitive Perform among the many Aged in China: A Potential Cohort Examine,” Xiao Na, Menglu Xi, Yigo Zhou, Jiaqi Yang, Jian Zhang, Yuanji Xi, Yuchen Yang, Haibin Yang and Ai Zhao, November 3, 2022. International transitions.
DOI: 10.1016/j.glt.2022.10.002

The research was funded by the Sanming Medical Challenge.

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